The genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.

TitleThe genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsLatif H, Lerman JA, Portnoy VA, Tarasova Y, Nagarajan H, Schrimpe-Rutledge AC, Smith RD, Adkins JN, Lee D-H, Qiu Y, Zengler K
JournalPLoS Genet
Volume9
Issue4
Paginatione1003485
Date Published2013 Apr
ISSN1553-7404
Abstract

The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima--a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5'UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of "Short" 5'UTRs (11-17 nt) and "Common" 5'UTRs (26-32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r = 0.63, p<2.2 × 10(-16) t-test). These distinctive properties are hypothesized to be a reflection of this organism's hyperthermophilic lifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth.

DOI10.1371/journal.pgen.1003485
PubMed URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637642?dopt=Abstract
PMCPMC3636130
Alternate JournalPLoS Genet.
PubMed ID23637642