The metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells reveals metabolic changes occurring in somatic cell reprogramming.

TitleThe metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells reveals metabolic changes occurring in somatic cell reprogramming.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsPanopoulos AD, Yanes O, Ruiz S, Kida YS, Diep D, Tautenhahn R, Herrerías A, Batchelder EM, Plongthongkum N, Lutz M, Berggren TW, Zhang K, Evans RM, Siuzdak G, Izpisua Belmonte J C
JournalCell Res
Volume22
Issue1
Pagination168-77
Date Published2012 Jan
ISSN1748-7838
KeywordsDNA Methylation, Embryonic Stem Cells, Energy Metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Glycolysis, HEK293 Cells, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Humans, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Metabolome, Nuclear Reprogramming, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Plasmids, Retroviridae
Abstract

Metabolism is vital to every aspect of cell function, yet the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains largely unexplored. Here we report, using an untargeted metabolomics approach, that human iPSCs share a pluripotent metabolomic signature with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that is distinct from their parental cells, and that is characterized by changes in metabolites involved in cellular respiration. Examination of cellular bioenergetics corroborated with our metabolomic analysis, and demonstrated that somatic cells convert from an oxidative state to a glycolytic state in pluripotency. Interestingly, the bioenergetics of various somatic cells correlated with their reprogramming efficiencies. We further identified metabolites that differ between iPSCs and ESCs, which revealed novel metabolic pathways that play a critical role in regulating somatic cell reprogramming. Our findings are the first to globally analyze the metabolome of iPSCs, and provide mechanistic insight into a new layer of regulation involved in inducing pluripotency, and in evaluating iPSC and ESC equivalence.

DOI10.1038/cr.2011.177
PubMed URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22064701?dopt=Abstract
PMCPMC3252494
Alternate JournalCell Res.
PubMed ID22064701